There are thousands of cells in the world, and it takes a lot of effort to keep them healthy. In the process of cell culture, we will encounter various problems, among which the vacuolation of cells in the cell culture flask is a common one. In this case, the reasons can be analyzed from the following aspects.
1. Cell aging: This situation often occurs in the process of primary cell culture. Some cells are in a terminally differentiated state and will not divide again. After a long time, they will vacuole and die.
FuDau T25 Cell Culture Flasks
2. Trypsin digestion: Excessive digestion time will also affect the state of cells and cause vacuoles. In addition, poor control of the pipetting force during digestion of cells will generate air bubbles, resulting in the phenomenon of vacuolation.
3. PH value: If the pH value of the culture medium in the cell culture flask is too different from the normal pH value of the cells, it will easily lead to vacuolation.
4. Autophagy: starvation-induced autophagy will also form vacuoles due to lack of nutrients in cells, but such vacuoles cannot be seen under the light microscope, and can only be observed under the electron microscope.
FuDau T75 Cell Culture Flasks
5. Contamination: Once some cells become vacuolated and continue to culture, the range of vacuoles will expand, even after passage. In this case, the cells cannot be rescued. Later tests found that such cells were infected with Mycoplasma/Chlamydia.
6. Cell metabolism: In the process of cell culture, due to insufficient serum concentration, drug action, external stimuli, etc., cell metabolism problems occur, and cell vacuolization will occur under endoplasmic reticulum stress.
The vacuolization of cells in the cell culture flask can be analyzed from the above six aspects. After finding out the specific reasons, corresponding measures can be taken.
The FAI climbed 5.9 percent year-on-year in the first 11 months of 2018, quickening from the 5.7-percent growth in Jan-Oct, the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) said Friday in an online statement.
The key indicator of investment, dubbed a major growth driver, hit the bottom in August and has since started to rebound steadily.
In the face of emerging economic challenges home and abroad, China has stepped up efforts to stabilize investment, in particular rolling out measures to motivate private investors and channel funds into infrastructure.
Friday's data showed private investment, accounting for more than 60 percent of the total FAI, expanded by a brisk 8.7 percent.
NBS spokesperson Mao Shengyong said funds into weak economic links registered rapid increases as investment in environmental protection and agriculture jumped 42 percent and 12.5 percent respectively, much faster than the average.
In breakdown, investment in high-tech and equipment manufacturing remained vigorous with 16.1-percent and 11.6-percent increases respectively in the first 11 months. Infrastructure investment gained 3.7 percent, staying flat. Investment in property development rose 9.7 percent, also unchanged.